Discussion on occultation is a vast
topic and traditions in this regard are many. what is necessary for us
to know is the following:
anyone to ask about the philosophy behind occultation and is there
anyone who can say: since i do not know the reason behind occultation, i
do not believe as you do in the existence of mahdi and i further say:
if as per what you say, mahdi is the imam, then it is necessary for him
to appear amongst the people and walk in the market-places!
say: concerning the numerous 'mustafiza' traditions which we previously
mentioned and few more of which we shall inform you about later on,
mahdi the expected one is abul-qasim muhammad-ibn-hassan askari who was
born on 15th shaban 256 a.h. besides, we have also mentioned to you the
names of those learned scholars who have approved the above point.
allah is all-wise, he would never command nor forbid any matter or
action except out of prudent knowledge. the same is true for this
particular matter. all that prudent knowledge is referred to those
charged with a duty because, in the holy presence of god, there exists
no want and his holy self is needless and all-sufficient. thus every
action of god is in conformity with prudent interests whether we realize
those interests or not and whether we perceive those reasons or not.
the known affairs where not even a single person dispute is this that
every voluntarily and in-voluntarily incidents and affairs which occur
in this world should be as per the divine prudency and rather as per the
divine will. amongst these affairs, the most important of them is the
occultation of mahdi (a.s.). based on this principle, the occultation of
mahdi must be as per prudency and wisdom, whether we perceive it or not
and whether we understand its reason or not.
we do not believe in what we have said, we are helpless in denying an
affair for which we do not possess any reason of its denial - firstly
that mahdi is the same muhammad-ibn-hassan askari. secondly that he is
hidden from the views. (its meaning will be mentioned later on).
thirdly that his occultation has taken place by the will and decree of allah.
you pay attention and deliberate over each of these three affairs, you
will realize that denying any one of them will not be rationally and
traditionally permissible. so we are bound to believe that the event of
mahdi's occultation is in accordance with prudency. otherwise, we have
to deny one of the three afore-said affairs.
in his book 'elalush - sharayeh' has narrated from abdullah-ibn-fazl
hashami as saying: «i heard sadeq aal-e-muhammad saying: 'for the
'saheb-e-amir (master of the affairs) there shall occur an occultation
during which every men of vanity will fall into doubt and skepticism.'»
i said: may i be sacrificed for you. for what reason?
he replied: for a reason which we are not at liberty to divulge.
i asked: what is the reason for hazrat's occultation?
he replied: the reason for hazrat's occultation is similar to the reason for concealment of the past divine proofs.
reason behind mahdi's occultation will not be disclosed but after his
emergence just as the reason of hazrat khizr's actions (meaning the
drilling of a hole in the boat, the killing of a lad and the repairing
of the wall) was not divulged until musa and khizr decided to part
company. o son of fazl. this affair is a divine affair, this secret is a
divine secret and this concealment is a divine concealment. we must
accept that all his actions are based on wisdom, even if the reason for
them is not known to us.'
this saying is the truth which should be confessed and certified by every muslim.
very often a person seeks the reason and philosophy for some of the
divine acts for the sake of gaining certainty and tranquility of his own
self and not that he wishes to use his confirmation and rejection as a
means for perceiving the reason of divine actions or not.
before mentioning the philosophy and reason for occultation we are
bound to briefly present certain preliminaries. those interested to know
its details should refer to books which have been written in this
regard. the preliminaries are as follows:
invitor who invites the people towards his call is bound to take resort
to the apparent and ordinary channels. for achieving his aims it is not
permissible for him to refer to the unseen and supernatural channels
because doing so would destroy the essence of reward and punishment.
rather the coming of prophets and messengers would all come to vain.
prophet and 'wasi' (legatee) are the same as far as the afore-said
matter (invitation) is concerned and this matter is in fact one of the
essential conditions of an evangelist (whether he may be a prophet or an
imam). however there exists a difference between a prophet and an imam
from another view-point and it is as such: as a prophet is the
establisher and founder of religion it is obligatory for him to start
his invition and mission in a customary manner and notify the people
about the ordinances (as against an imam).
argumentation has been completed upon the people through a prophet, it
is necessary for the people to ask and inquire from an imam. it is not
obligatory for an imam to invite the people and then guide them.
it is obligatory upon the people to approach the imam and receive the
religious commandments from him, protect him and ward off the enemies
from him just as it was obligatory, for the people to protect their
prophet and receive the religious commandments from him. when the people
begin to lapse such duties and forsake their imam and the imam in turn
fears from being killed by his enemies and finds none to defend him from
his enemies it is permissible for him to isolate himself from the
people and leave aside the duty of invitation and propaganda. this
responsibility is directed towards the people and not the imam.
views of 'muhaqqeq' i.e. khawja naseer tusi too are the same. in his
book 'tajreed' he says: 'the presence of imam is one grace and his
domination is another and his absence is due to our sake. now that you
have understood this matter, we say. we may mention the following as the
reasons and philosophy behind the occultation of imam-e-zaman:
firstly: for rectifying and punishing the shias and rather all the others:
a prophet or an imam is present among a nation and that nation does not
rise for his obligatory rights or does not obey his commands and in
short, the prophet's invitation leaves no impression on the nation and
rather they exceed the limit and cause harm to their prophet, it is
permissable for the prophet to abandon and isolate his nation so that in
this manner he rectifies his nation. perhaps in this manner, the nation
concerned would stop its rebellion and begin to adopt the path of
guidance. perhaps they would seek benefit from the prophet existence and
an imam too would act as a preacher, guide, leader and the one inviting
the people. the divine saying: ---
Stems from this very aspect.
isolation and abandonment of invitation becomes the means for
rectifying a nation then it is prudent to do the same even though people
may be unaware of this matter. moreover it would be beneficial to them
even though they may not possess understanding of the same. this
isolation and abondonment of invitation does not possess any fixed limit
and boundaries and in fact, one cannot say anything about their limit.
rather its limit and duration depends on the nation turning back from
its deviated path and becoming enlightened after heedlessness. it
depends on the people's awareness of the benefits of the presence of the
prophet or an imam.
witness that ahl-e-bayt, revealation, messengership and aal-e-muhammad
had to face too many calamities such as: hardship, suffering and
non-revolt for the sake of the people instead of that right which allah
had set as the reward of his messengership. surely, they were always
subjected to severe persecution and pressure such as being taken
captive, imprisoned, hanged, expatriated, exiled and dispersed here and
Mahdi, the expected one is
aware of all such matters and knows that he too would be subjected to
such cruelties and oppression. rather, it would be much more sever,
greater and bitter in nature because people are aware of hazrat's
objectives and are aware that hazrat would give orders to rise with
their arms. thus mahdi has isolated himself from the nation because he
knows that he would receive the same treatment as his father,
fore-fathers, cousins, and relatives had received. besides, hazrat's
objectives are nothing but to train the nation, make them aware, bring
them back on the path of guidance and to seek his own just right. the
author of elalush-sharaye has narrated a tradition from imam muhammad
baqer (a.s.) as such: 'when allah does not wish that we should remain
amongst a group, he holds us back from them.'
secondly: freedom in invitation and freedom in actions
who wishes to rise for rectifying a nation in either worldly or
religious matters should possess friends and companions and have a pact
with some of the superior men so that they either remain his helpers or
at least do not create any obstacles for him. the essential condition of
this pact and agreement is this that he should stop interference and
invitation (of the people) and be congenial with them (so) that he may
have remained loyal to his pact until his affair and the time of pact
and agreement come to an end and he deals with them in the same manner
as he deals with others. this means that some of the commandments should
not be implemented with respect to those who have concluded a pact with
him and he deals with them contrary to the realities because of fear
and dissimultation. thus allah says: ---
Except the polytheist with whom you have a valid peace treaty and who
have not broken it from their side or helped others against you. you
(believers) must fulfil the terms of the peace treaty with them.
mahdi (a.s.) shall emerge, he is bound to invite (the people) through
ordinary channels and his duty would be to judge according to the
realities and not to fear anyone just as the same can be found in most
of the traditions. this is because mahdi's period is the period of
emergence of truth, the most sparkling emergence and so, fear and
dissimulation are inconsistent with this matter. this requires that he
should not have allegiance of anyone upon his neck. indispensibly, he
should be needless of any pact and agreement which would result in
dissimulation. this would occur only when the ordinary channels for his
assistance come to halt.
in «kamaluddin» has directly narrated from hashim-ibn-salem who in turn
has narrated from imam sadeq (a.s.) as such: 'the 'qaem' shall emerge
without having allegiance of anyone on his back.
the same book, shaikh saduq directly narrates from hazrat ali-ibn-musa
ar-ridha who said: 'i am as though seeing my shias - at that time when
they will have lost my fourth offspring - then, they will search for him
like the cattles pursuing grazing lands but will not find him.
narrator says: i asked: 'for what reason 'o son of messenger of allah?'
he replied: it is because their imam will disappear.
i said: why will he disappear?
he replied: 'so that when he emerges with the sword, he will not have anyone's allegiance on his neck.
Thirdly: making perfect the people and improving their lot
the well-known facts which is not a subject of dispute is this that
there exists differences in people's aptitude with regards to tolerance
of duties, acquisition of knowledge and various other sciences.
differences in levels of faith, differences in recognition of prophets
and legatees and differences in the divine laws too are the result of
differences in people's aptitude. verily, god does not make anyone
responsible but as per the level of his aptitude.
how often it happens that when duties exceed a person's ability and
teachings his aptitude the very purpose (for which the duties and
teachings were given) is lost. moreover, he would resort to disobedience
or would become an apostate or still further, his ignorance would
increase more than before. the verse of the holy quran says:---
('O lord, do not burden us with that which we cannot bear).
It is said that if abuzar knew what was going on in salman's heart, then he would have become an apostate or would have died.
kulaini in «kafi» has narrated from imam sadeq (as.) as such: in ali's
(as.) book it is written: dawoud said: 'o lord reveal to me the truth as
it is (with thou) so that i can judge accordingly. it was replied: 'you
do not possess the strength to bear this affair.'
hazrat insisted until god accepted.
day a person approached hazrat dawoud with a complaint about another
person and said: this man has taken away my wealth. god revealed to
dawoud that the claimant had killed the defendant's father and plundered
his wealth. hazrat dawoud ordered for the claimants death until he was
killed. his wealth was seized and given back to the defendant. people
were amazed by this incident and word on this matter went around until
it reached hazrat dawoud's ears. he became worried by these talks and
requested god to relieve him from this uneasiness. afterwards, god
revealed to dawoud as such: 'you should judge amongst the people by
means of witness and evidence and persuade them to swear in my name....
sadeq (a.s.) said: 'if people knew how allah has created them, then
none amongst them would find fault with the other.' imam muhammad baqer
(a.s.) said: 'the believers possess (various) ranks and positions - some
of them have one rank, while some others have two, three, four, five,
six or seven ranks. if faith of the second level is conveyed to a person
having faith of the first level, he will be unable to keep guard over
it and if faith of the third degree is conveyed to a person possessing
faith of second degree, he will be unable to bear it....
has come down from traditions that when mahdi emerges, he will rule as
per his own knowledge; he will spread the true 'ma'aref' (divine
sciences) amongst the people; he will remove the curtain obscuring the
realities; he will enliven the holy religion of islam and will annul all
that is not in islam and has been added to it such that people will
imagine that mahdi (a.s.) has brought a new religion and a new book.
the execution of such reforms and dissemination of the realities the
way it should and must be carried out requires much more perfect
aptitudes and intellects than what we have today.
postponement of mahdi's emergence and continuation of his occultation
is because of the hope of achieving perfection and development which, by
the blessings of various sciences, is on the increase day by day.
magazine 'al-helal' published an article about resurrection a few years
ago under the title «does there exist a world after (the end of) this
world?» and while replying to this question, it emphasised that a day
will come when the literary and scientific world will reach its
perfection like the material world.
very soon men shall become aware of the literary, scientific and
ethical world - more than today when he is cognisant of the material
world. why shouldn't it be so especially when man has already perceived
that the material world has ruined his rights and has put him in
pressure and torment. soon man shall witness how the earth will be
illuminated by the divine light and by means of mahdi's emergence.
Fourthly: test and examination for the people:
allah's ways which is still prevailing amongst his servants - right
from the time he appointed the prophet - (and allah's ways never alter
or change) is the matter of human evaluation and examination so that the
one who is destroyed is done so on the basis of witness, and proof and
the one who is enlivened is done so on the basis of witness and proof
and the level of their faith and reality is manifested - rather their
own condition becomes known to themselves. verily, it often occurs that
man's condition is unknown and remains a secret even for himself.
divine shariats (laws) contains literary, material, wordly, spiritual,
individual and social programs and teachings. this world is a school and
the prophets are teachers and evangelists. every school or lesson
requires an examination appropriate to it. the phenomenon, which occur
in this world are a sort of examination. the effect of those lessons on
the people can be ascertained predominantly be means of such
examination. as allah says:---
Alif lam mim.
Do men think that they will be left alone on saying, we believe, and not be tried?
holy islamic shariat (religious law) is the most perfect of all the
other shariats. in the islamic shariat we find such divine sciences and
instructions which cannot be found in other shariats. so all that was
prevalent amongst the previous nations such as the various tests and
examinations should, out of necessity, prevail in this nation too
because this general rule comprises those lessons and even more than
Amongst the most important
matters by which the previous nations were subjected to evaluation and
examination was the matter of occultation of some of their prophets.
then, the same occultation should occur for the leaders of this nation
too just as the holy prophet (s.a.w.a.) went into concealment in the
mountain pass of abu-talib for a period of thirty years. amongst the
concealment of mahdi so that the path of guidance is distinguished from
the path of deviation and a believer is distinguished from a hypocrit.
like some of the prophets' concealment, the concealment of mahdi is the
greatest test and examination for shi'ites and rather for the
non-shi'ites making no difference as far as the duration of concealment
Shaikh saduq in «kamaluddin» has imputedly narrated from sadir sairafi as such:
along with mufazzal-ibn-omar, abu basir and abaan-ibn-tughlab got the
honour of meeting imam jafar sadeq (a.s.). we saw hazrat, sitting on the
ground having put on a collarless cloak which had two short sleeves. he
was weeping like a woman weeping over her lost dear one. the signs of
grief and sorrow were visible on his blessed face and tears were flowing
from his eyes. he was moaning and saying: 'my master, your occultation
has snatched away the sleep from my eyes. it has taken away my comfort
and has deprived tranquility from my heart. my master, your occultation
has fastened my grief and sorrow forever. due to loss of friends one
after the other, our gathering has been broken. i do not feel the tears
of my eyes and the yellings and cryings of my heart which result from
the past calamities and hardships but that i see the same in my
imagination which is greater, more sorrowful, severe and unknown than
all other difficulties.
our mind became perplexed (by witnessing imam's condition) and our
hearts became upset as a result of imam's terrifying words about the
destructible events. we thought that the calamities and misfortunes of
the day which had befallen on imam had brought him to this state of
grief and sorrow.
so we said: 'o son
of the best mankind. may allah not cause you to cry. for what reason are
you weeping and what has made you to moan to such earnest?
says: hazrat sadeq (a.s.) heaved a sad sigh which caused pain to his
heart and then said: 'this morning when i was looking at the book of
«jafr» (the book which contains knowledge on deaths, calamities,
misfortunes and knowledges about the past and future and which was
exclusively given to muhammad and his progeny by the exalted god) i came
across such matters like the qaem's birth, occultation, delay in
reappearance, his long-life, the sufferings of the believers at that
time, the appearance of doubt and uncertainty in their hearts because of
hazrat's prolonged occultation, the deviations that will occur for
majority of them and shirking of the islamic obligations on their part
whereas allah says:---
«And we have made every man's actions to cling to his neck».
(«--» Here refers to the 'wilayat of the holy prophet's progeny).'
These events have overpowered me with grief and sorrow.
said: 'o son of the messenger of allah, we will be honoured if
familiarized us with some of those things over which you have knowledge.
sadeq (a.s.) said: the three characteristic which allah has assigned
for three of his prophets has been assigned for our 'qaem' too.
of all, the qaem's birth is the same as was the birth of musa.
secondly, his occultation is the same as was the occultation of isa and
thirdly his delay is the same as was the delay in the coming of hazrat
i n addition allah has set the long-life of hazrat khizr as a proof for the qaem's long-life.
says: i said: 'o son of messenger of allah, explain these affairs so
that they become clear for us. he replied: with regards to musa's birth,
it should be said that when firaun (pharaon) realized and feared that
his kingdom would fall by musa's hand, he summoned the wizards. the
wizards guided firaun in the genealogy of musa and said: 'musa shall
come from bani-israel'.
As a result,
firaun always ordered his men to slit the bellies of the pregnant women
belonging to the tribe of bani-israel. for this purpose, (i.e. for
killing hazrat musa) they murdered more than twenty thousand new-born
babies. however they failed to kill hazrat musa as all-mighty allah
bani-ummayah and bani-abbass realized that the downfall of their cruel
kingdom and empire would take place by mahdi's hand, they set up enmity
with us and engaged in killing and exterminating the descendants of the
holy prophet (s.a.w.a.) with this idea that amongst them, they would be
killing the 'qaem' too. however allah does not let anyone from the
oppressors to know his task save he shall complete and perfect his light
even though the polytheists may dislike it.
regards to isa's (jesus') occultation, the jews and christians arrived
at a mutual agreement that hazrat isa had been killed. however allah,
the glorified refuted their view as per these divine words:---
(And they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but it appeared to them so)
during the occultation of our 'qaem', the islamic 'ummah' (nation) will
at any time deny him due to the length of his occultation. then, some
of the deviated amongst them shall say: the 'qaem' is not yet born. some
others will say. the 'qaem' not only is born but also dead. others who
shall say that the eleventh imam was barren will become apostates. still
others who would say that imams are more than thirteen will deviate
from the true religion. yet others will disobey allah because of their
saying that the qaem's soul has become manifest in the body of another
The incident of hazrat's nuh
delay is that since he asked allah for his nation's punishment, allah
sent gibra'eel (gabriel) with seven date-seeds.
said: 'o nuh! allah, the exalted says: "these people are my slaves and
my created ones. i do not wish to destroy my slaves in a lightening but
after underlining invitation and completion of argumentation. so
continue inviting your nation until i bestow my rewards upon you. plant
these seeds because you will attain salvation and deliverance after they
become trees and bear their fruits. give glad-tidings about this matter
to your believing followers".
long time passed and those seeds turned into strong trees possessing
leaves, branches and stalks and the trees began to bear dates, hazrat
nuh (a.s.) asked allah to fulfill his promise.
the second time, allah ordered nuh to sow fresh, date-seeds yet again.
he ordered him to strive and adopt patience in this regard and to inform
this matter to his believing followers. when hazrat nuh followed these
instructions, three hundred of his men turned apostates and they said:
'if what nuh claims happens to be the truth his lord would not have
broken his promise'.
Each time a
group turned apostates, allah commanded hazrat nuh to sow seeds from the
dates of the previous trees. this continued until the number of true
believers remained only seventy or above.(100)
revealed to hazrat nuh (a.s.) as such: now, the brightness of dawn has
obviated the darkness of night since the truth has been established and
faith has been purified except those whose nature are malicious and
gloomy. if i had destroyed the un-believers and spared this group who
had brought faith in you and then turned apostates, i would not have
been true to my previous promise made to your true believers - those
whose monotheistic belief was based on sincerity and who had clinged to
the rope of your prophethood. my promise is to make them vicegerents
over the earth, give strength to their religion and turn their fear and
anxiety into tranquility so that doubt and uncertainty is obviated from
their hearts and they become sincere in their worship for me.
could it be for me to make them successors, give them strength and turn
their fear into security while being aware of the shaky faith and evil
nature of those who had turned apostates. if at the time of giving
succession to the disbelievers i had given the kingdom to the believers,
pride and discord would have overtaken them. a series of afflictions
would have become strong in their hearts and they would have created
enmity with their brothers and battled with them for gaining power.
seditions had arisen and battles had taken place how was it possible
for the believers to issue commands and how was it feasible to follow
the religion? such was not possible.
Now, by our commands you may start building a ship.
sadeq (a.s.) said: the same condition shall prevail for our 'qaem'. the
period of his occultation will be a long one until absolute truth
appears and faith gets clearly distinguished from the evils of discord
so that any of the shias who are evil in nature and have feelings of
discord will exit from the religion at the time when caliphate and the
affair is divulged and comes into view.
says: i said: 'o son of messenger of allah, the navasebs (a group
belonging to sunni sect) reckon that this verse (*) has been revealed in
honour of abu bakr, omar, osman and ali.
(*) Ayat 55, sura nur.
replied: 'no. may allah not guide the navasebs. during whose period was
it that the religion of allah had been established and had become the
object of satisfaction of the holy prophet? in which period was it that
the divine command had been divulged amongst the people with no fear in
hearts and no doubt in minds? during which era of theirs time it was as
such notwithstanding the fact that the muslims returned back from the
religion and seditions occurred during their time and battles took place
between them and the dis-believers!?
Then Imam (a.s.) recited this verse:---
the time when the apostles despaired and the people became sure that
they were indeed told a lie, that our help came to them)
the incident of 'abdus-saleh' (virtuous slave) reference is made to
hazrat khizr. verily, allah, the exalted has not prolonged his life for
the sake of his prophethood or for the book which he must have revealed
or for the divine law given to him by which he could annul the divine
laws of the previous prophets or for his imamat (leadership) which was
necessary for his servants to follow or for any commands which allah
must have made obligatory for him to follow. rather as allah is
all-aware that the qaem's age would become lengthy during the period of
his occultation such that his servants would start denying him. he
prolonged the life of hazrat khizr. there is no reason for his longevity
but that it is set as an argumentation for the qaem's long-life so that
in this way, the proofs and reasons of the enemies and obstinate people
is severed and people will not have any plea against allah.
The author of «raudhat-ul-wa'yezeen» has narrated from jabir juafi as such:
i asked imam muhammad baqer (as.): 'when will be your 'faraj' (deliverance)?
(a.s.) replied: alas! alas! there shall be no 'faraj' until you all
become a mesh (and he repeated this sentence three times) so that impure
believers are exterminated and only the pure believers remain.'
in the same book, its author narrates imputedly from ali-ibn-jafar who
narrates from his brother hazrat musa-ibn-jafar (a.s.) as saying: 'when
the fifth one (i.e. mahdi) from the progeny of the seventh one (i.e.
musa-ibn-jafar) disappears, then fear allah with regards to your faith
and be careful to see that nobody ruins your religion. this is because
the master of the affair will be compelled to conceal himself until a
group who have faith in his imamate will turn back from their belief.
this occultation is a test from allah who wishes to examine his servants
by this means.
Fifthly: fear of getting killed
of the reasons of seclusion of the prophets was the fear of being
killed. thus, they would coneal themselves so that in this manner they
could protect themselves and hence achieve their aim later on.
about hazrat musa, allah says:- ---
'So i fled from you when i feared you'
Again, about hazrat musa, another verse says:- ---
'Surely the chiefs are consulting together to slay you, therefore depart (at once)....'
fear and anxiety was one of the reasons which solicited musa-ibn-imran
(a.s.) to flee from egypt and go to shuaib (a.s.). it was fear and
apprehension that caused the holy prophet of islam to take retreat first
in the mountain-pass of abu-talib and then to seek shelter in a cave.
the un-believers decided to kill him and allah commanded him to flee towards medina along with ali (a.s.).
to absence of the ordinary channels through which mahdi (a.s.) could
invite the people and also due to the strength of the enemies, hazrat
fears from such matters as imprisonment, exile, murder and the gallows.
thus he has no alternative but to retire and go into occultation until
the time when the divine command is issued. besides, allah has set a
limit for all matters.